Federal Highway Administration Research Project, Task 3, Concrete Mixture Research Related to Pavements: Final Report
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Manufactured fine aggregate (MFA) can be used as a replacement for or in conjunction with natural sand in concrete mixtures. MFA does not exhibit ideal shape or texture for fine aggregate, and the production of MFA generates high percentages of microfines, particles that pass the No. 200 sieve. Microfines are washed from the aggregate due to specification limitations, resulting in wasted aggregate and a coarser fine aggregate grading. Three manufactured sands were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine their effects on fresh and hardened concrete properties. It was found that greater proportions of manufactured sand caused the workability to decrease, the demand for high-range water-reducing admixture to increase, the compressive strength to increase, and the modulus of elasticity to decrease.