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dc.creatorChiang, Yi-Kuanen_US
dc.creatorOverzier, Roderiken_US
dc.creatorGebhardt, Karlen_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-28T22:22:04Z
dc.date.available2016-04-28T22:22:04Z
dc.date.issued2013-12en
dc.identifierdoi:10.15781/T2Q823
dc.identifier.citationChiang, Yi-Kuan, Roderik Overzier, and Karl Gebhardt. "Ancient light from young cosmic cities: Physical and observational signatures of galaxy proto-clusters." The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 779, No. 2 (Dec., 2013): 127.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0004-637Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2152/35208
dc.description.abstractA growing number of galaxy clusters at z = 1-2 is being discovered as part of deep optical, IR, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect surveys. For a complete picture of cluster formation, however, it is important that we also start probing the much earlier epoch, between redshifts of about 2 and 7, during which these clusters and their galaxies first began to form. Because the study of these so-called proto-clusters is currently quite limited by small number statistics, widely varying selection techniques, and many assumptions, we have performed a large systematic study of cluster formation utilizing cosmological simulations. We use the Millennium Simulations to track the evolution of dark matter and galaxies in about 3000 clusters from the earliest times to z = 0. We define an effective radius R-e for proto-clusters and characterize their growth in size and mass with cosmic time. We show that the progenitor regions of galaxy clusters (ranging in mass from similar to 10(14) to a few times 10(15) M-circle dot) can already be identified in galaxy surveys at very early times (at least up to z similar to 5), provided that the galaxy overdensities are measured on a sufficiently large scale (R-e similar to 5-10 Mpc comoving) and with sufficient statistics. We present the overdensities in matter, dark matter halos, and galaxies as functions of present-day cluster mass, redshift, bias, and window size that can be used to interpret the wide range of structures found in real surveys. We also derive the probability that a structure having a galaxy overdensity delta(gal), defined by a set of observational selection criteria, is indeed a proto-cluster, and we show how their z = 0 masses can already be estimated long before virialization. We present overdensity profiles as a function of radius, and we further show how the projected surface overdensities of proto-clusters decrease as the uncertainties in redshift measurements increase. We provide a table of proto-cluster candidates selected from the literature and discuss their properties in light of our simulation predictions. This paper provides the general framework that will allow us to extend the study of cluster formation out to much higher redshifts using the large number of proto-clusters that are expected to be discovered in, e. g., the upcoming HETDEX and Hyper Suprime-Cam surveys.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASAen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipJPL/Caltechen_US
dc.language.isoEnglishen_US
dc.relation.ispartofen_US
dc.rightsAdministrative deposit of works to Texas ScholarWorks: This works author(s) is or was a University faculty member, student or staff member; this article is already available through open access or the publisher allows a PDF version of the article to be freely posted online. The library makes the deposit as a matter of fair use (for scholarly, educational, and research purposes), and to preserve the work and further secure public access to the works of the University.en_US
dc.subjectcosmology: observationsen_US
dc.subjectgalaxies: clusters: generalen_US
dc.subjectgalaxies:en_US
dc.subjectevolutionen_US
dc.subjectgalaxies: high-redshiften_US
dc.subjectly-alpha emittersen_US
dc.subjectsimilar-to 2en_US
dc.subjectlyman-break galaxiesen_US
dc.subjectformation-densityen_US
dc.subjectrelationen_US
dc.subjectcolor-magnitude relationen_US
dc.subjectstar-formation historiesen_US
dc.subjectprobe wmapen_US
dc.subjectobservationsen_US
dc.subjecthigh-redshift clustersen_US
dc.subjectlarge-scale structureen_US
dc.subjectradioen_US
dc.subjectgalaxyen_US
dc.subjectastronomy & astrophysicsen_US
dc.titleAncient Light From Young Cosmic Cities: Physical And Observational Signatures Of Galaxy Proto-Clustersen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.departmentAstronomyen_US
dc.identifier.Filename2013_12_ancientlight.pdfen_US
dc.rights.restrictionOpenen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1088/0004-637x/779/2/127en_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorChiang, Yi-Kuanen_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorOverzier, Roderiken_US
dc.contributor.utaustinauthorGebhardt, Karlen_US
dc.relation.ispartofserialAstrophysical Journalen_US


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