Dust And The Type II-Plateau Supernova 2004dj
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We present mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy of a Type II-plateau supernova, SN 2004dj, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, spanning 106-1393 days after explosion. MIR photometry plus optical/near-IR observations are also reported. An early-time MIR excess is attributed to emission from non-silicate dust formed within a cool dense shell (CDS). Most of the CDS dust condensed between 50 days and 165 days, reaching a mass of 0.3 x 10(-5) M-circle dot. Throughout the observations, much of the longer wavelength (> 10 mu m) part of the continuum is explained as an IR echo from interstellar dust. The MIR excess strengthened at later times. We show that this was due to thermal emission from warm, non-silicate dust formed in the ejecta. Using optical/near-IR line profiles and the MIR continua, we show that the dust was distributed as a disk whose radius appeared to be shrinking slowly. The disk radius may correspond to a grain destruction zone caused by a reverse shock which also heated the dust. The dust-disk lay nearly face-on, had high opacities in the optical/near-IR regions, but remained optically thin in the MIR over much of the period studied. Assuming a uniform dust density, the ejecta dust mass by 996 days was (0.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4) M-circle dot and exceeded 10(-4) M-circle dot by 1393 days. For a dust density rising toward the center the limit is higher. Nevertheless, this study suggests that the amount of freshly synthesized dust in the SN 2004dj ejecta is consistent with that found from previous studies and adds further weight to the claim that such events could not have been major contributors to the cosmic dust budget.