(Rh(CO)₂Cl)₂-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions and domino sequences and application of the Pauson-Khand reaction to the synthesis of azabicyclic structures: total synthesis of (-)-alstonerine
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Examination of the scope of the [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction as well as the development of a domino [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic alkylation/Pauson Khand reaction is described. A number of experiments were carried out in order to explore the novel regioselectivity in the [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction, and the [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction was found to give products resulting from attack of the nucleophile on the carbon bearing the leaving group in a highly regioselective fashion in most cases. Examination of allylic carbonate substrates containing similar substitution at each allylic site was carried out, and conditions that minimize equilibration of active intermediates were determined. Intramolecular [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic alkylation was accomplished to synthesize challenging eight-membered lactone ring systems. Nucleophile scope was explored with regards to the [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction, and malonates, substituted malonates, aliphatic amines, and ortho-substituted phenols were all determined to be effective in the reaction. A domino [Rh(CO)₂Cl]₂-catalyzed allylic alkylation/Pauson-Khand reaction was developed which allows the rapid synthesis of bicyclopentenone products from simple, readily available starting materials. The first application of the Pauson-Khand reaction to the synthesis of azabridged bicyclic structures is also described. Various cis-2,6-disubstituted piperidines were cyclized to the corresponding azabridged bicyclopentenones is high yields often in high diastereoselectivities. The effect of ring size, nitrogen substituent, and remote functionality on the Pauson-Khand substrates was studied. The methodology developed was applied to the concise, enantioselective total synthesis of the antimalarial and anticancer indole alkaloid (-)-alstonerine. Pauson-Khand reaction of a readily available enyne synthesized in four steps from L-tryptophan provided a cyclopentenone in high yield as one diastereomer. Elaboration of the Pauson-Khand product required the development of a one pot conversion of a five-membered cyclic silyl enol ether to a sixmembered lactone and the mild acylation of a glycal.