Single Or Double Degenerate Progenitors? Searching For Shock Emission In The SDSS-II Type Ia Supernovae
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From the set of nearly 500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe) and around 10,000 unconfirmed candidates from SDSS-II, we select a subset of 108 confirmed SNe Ia with well-observed early-time light curves to search for signatures from shock interaction of the SN with a companion star. No evidence for shock emission is seen; however, the cadence and photometric noise could hide a weak shock signal. We simulate shocked light curves using SN Ia templates and a simple Gaussian shock model to emulate the noise properties of the SDSS-II sample and estimate the detectability of the shock interaction signal as a function of shock amplitude, shock width, and shock fraction. We find no direct evidence for shock interaction in the rest-frame B-band, but place an upper limit on the shock amplitude at 9% of SN peak flux (M-B > -16.6 mag). If the single degenerate channel dominates type Ia progenitors, this result constrains the companion stars to be less than about 6 M-circle dot on the main sequence and strongly disfavors red giant companions.