Cost-effectiveness analyses of anti-resorptive agents for management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and fractures: empirical estimates from the 1996-2004 MEPS data and longitudinal projection from Markov modeling
MetadataShow full item record
Long-term glucocorticoid use leads to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and fractures which require proper management. Little is known about the "real-world," long-term costs and effectiveness of anti-osteoporotic treatments. A retrospective analysis of data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was conducted to evaluate the "real-world" outcomes. Markov modeling with Monte Carlo simulations was used to yield long-term estimates of these outcomes. A total of 5,461 subjects met the study criteria for long-term glucocorticoid users (LTGS, average prednisone-equivalent dose=11.0 mg/day, average length=237 days), which represents 2.3% of the non-institutional U.S. population. The study subjects tended to be middle-aged (49.7 years old), female (61.4%) and white (86.2%). Overall 22.4% of LTGS users reported use of any anti-osteoporotic agent. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was the most frequently used in women followed by bisphosphonates, while bisphosphonates and calcitonin were used by men. Analyses of variance indicated some significant differences in characteristics of LTGS users among treatment groups which suggest a selection bias. Female LTGS users had higher prevalence rates (6.8%) of osteoporosis than males (1.0%), but the prevalence rates of osteoporotic fractures were similar (3.0%). The logistic regression analyses indicated that the use of oral glucocorticoid tablets does not significantly change the odds of osteoporotic fractures in study subjects (relative risk (RR)=1.146, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.901-1.458 for subjects in the WELL state; RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.188-1.621 for subjects in the GIOP state; RR=1.241, 95% CI 0.532-2.893 for subjects in the GIFX state). The estimated 10-year and lifetime incremental cost per osteoporotic fracture avoided are $27,253-$35,692 (10-year) and $84,942-$91,075 (lifetime) in hypothetical female glucocorticoid users. HRT is the most cost-effective option for hypothetical females except that calcitonin is preferred for 65-year-old females receiving lifetime treatments. When HRT is excluded, calcitonin is the next most cost-effective option except that raloxifene is preferred for 30- and 50-year-old females receiving 10-year treatments. Calcitonin is the most cost-effective option for male glucocorticoid users. Bisphosphonates are less cost-effective which may be due to selection bias. Anti-osteoporotic treatments are recommended for all long-term glucocorticoid users, but the preferred option depends on gender, age, length of treatments and budgets.