Science and Policy in Setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Resolving the Ozone Enigma
MetadataShow full item record
The elusive interaction between science and policy has dominated risk-based standard setting since the dawn of the environmental era. This is attributable in part to the fact that the regulatory agencies operate on the frontiers of scientific knowledge and in part to Congress’s choice of vague language to describe the level of expected protection. This interaction is especially apparent in the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) efforts to promulgate and revise national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) under § 109 of the Clean Air Act—where the EPA has navigated the boundaries between science and policy in ways that sometimes appear arbitrary or inconsistent to outside observers. The history of the EPA’s most recent revision and attempted rerevision of the primary NAAQS for photochemical oxidants (ozone), in which two EPA Administrators from different political parties reached different conclusions on the same administrative record, offers a unique perspective on the roles of science and policy in environmental decision making. Drawing on the ozone “rulemakings” as a case study, this Article will explore how science and policy interact in promulgating NAAQS. After providing an introduction to the NAAQS standard-setting process in Part II, Parts III and IV describe the EPA’s 2008 revision to the ozone NAAQS and its reconsideration of the 2008 standard in 2009 through 2011. Part V then draws on the case study and the relevant academic literature to explore the roles of science and policy in environmental decision making. Part VI examines the critical question of what policy should guide the EPA’s resolution of science–policy questions in NAAQS standard setting. Part VI also addresses arguments that the EPA’s approach to NAAQS standard setting is incoherent because it does not provide a rational approach to determining how much risk is too much in the context of nonthreshold pollutants like ozone. This Article concludes that the EPA’s traditional approach to NAAQS standard setting is neither incoherent nor irrational, and it is easily adaptable to nonthreshold pollutants.