Globalization within sport discourse : a mixed method critical discourse analysis of the 1984, 2000, and 2008 Olympic Games’ newspaper coverage
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The goal of this study was to analyze nine different newspapers’ coverage of three separate Olympic Games (i.e., 1984, 2000, and 2008) in order to determine how the globalization of sport was discussed, how this discourse reflected the power relations within international sport, and what sport management implications could be extracted. Globalization is an axial theme of the current era and is applicable to discussions of international sport. Sport has been characterized as a highly profitable, largely popular, and globally networked cultural form (Smart, 2007) that serves both as a source and a product of globalization (Eitzen, 2012), and, on a more practical level, as a global product and service (Ratten & Ratten, 2011). Houlihan (2007) reiterates the importance of globalization, stating that it has become one of the most prominent research concepts in the social sciences, including sport studies. An additional goal of this study was to critically evaluate sport journalism, as an often-overlooked aspect of journalism, and demonstrate linkages between media coverage and sport management practices. Sport— especially international, professional, and collegiate sport—and sporting ideals are intimately intertwined and attached to the sport media, and the sport media has both beneficial and detrimental influence over sporting and social norms. Sport management scholars should continue to critically examine and further understand the interplay between sport management, the sport media, and the power of discourse. Results indicate that treatment of globalization within the sport discourse evolved over time, and the understandings and presentations of globalization and its relationship to sport became more nuanced and sophisticated. Findings provide additional support for the dynamic nature of discourse, suggest the importance of conscientious and critical monitoring, and indicate the need to adapt best practices to reflect the changes in discourse, particularly in regards to influential phenomenon such as globalization. The research findings of this study will be of interest to sport management and globalization studies scholars and sport practitioners who are interested in understanding how discourse influences concept proliferation, power relations, policy creation, organizational and economic forecasting, strategic management, and other management practices.