Birth and development of the Pakistan army : from British conception to the nuclear age
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This thesis examines of the creation of the Pakistan Army beginning from the British Indian Army's defense strategy before the Partition of India in 1947 and the immediate challenges facing the Army's reconstitution efforts following partition. This study will start with the British concept of racial determination and the recruitment of men in the so-called martial castes who have demonstrated warriorlike qualities tested in battle. The British uniquely organized the British Indian Army by the castes or races best suited for Bengal and Madras Armies. The Pakistan Army was created from the British Indian Army through a necessity of defense for Pakistan against its newest and well-equipped neighbor, India. The Partition Council was the primary force leading the division of the British Indian Army; therefore, its decrees of phased division and reconstitution of the Pakistan Army are crucial. The key decisions surrounding the partition through the Defense Council and Army Subcommittee will also be discussed. The study also presents in detail one man's testimony, Supreme Commander Claude Auchinleck, in the months before, during and after the partition. This study will reveal the obstacles placed in the way of a 'fair' division of assets for the Pakistan Army. The obstacles were the British Empire's partiality towards the new Indian political leadership. Supreme Commander Auchinleck was forced to resign early due to Viceroy Mountbatten's reluctance to support his subordinate British leadership and his constant pandering to the Indian political leadership, specifically Prime Minister Nehru. Lastly, the discussion will focus on Pakistan's nuclear development after partition from 1948 and beyond. It will be shown that the Pakistan nuclear weapons program began under civilian use auspices in 1956 but gradually converted into a program to create nuclear weapons under military control in the early 1970s in order to counter the Indian threat. The Pakistan Army has maintained its control over the nuclear weapons through a series of military coups and constitutional manipulation. Despite the rough beginnings for the Pakistan Army and all the obstacles placed in its way for a fair division and reconstitution of assets by the British Empire and Indian politicians, it can be said that the creation of the Pakistan Army was in large part a success primarily through the development of its nuclear weapons program.