Plug-in electric vehicle deployment and integration with the electric grid
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Key battery, semiconductor, and software technologies have sufficiently progressed over the past few decades to enable viable plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) alternatives to conventional vehicles. Alternatives to petroleum-based fuels for transportation are sought to address concerns over energy security, foreign oil derived U.S. trade deficits, oil related geopolitical entanglements, and emissions. The various types of PEVs have substantially different characteristics. The types and key attributes of PEVs, charging standards, and charging locations are described. The likely scenario for PEV-Grid interactions over the next decade is synthesized from the analysis of the technologies available to and circumstances of vehicle manufacturers, utilities, and supplier firms. PEV adoption considerations are evolving. Many lessons have been learned from the first generation of PEVs that were introduced starting in late 2010. Technology, market, and policy drivers of emerging trends in the diffusion of PEVs are explored more in-depth. PEVs as electric loads are unique in that they are large, flexible, and intelligent. These attributes can not only provide utilities a new source of revenue, but also improve grid stability and economics. Actions, technologies, and policies that utilities can deploy to increase adoption are discussed. Actions are explored to make the overall PEV ownership experience superior to a conventional vehicle. This dissertation also describes research of the capability for PEVs in Vehicle to Home (V2H) scenarios, where the vehicle acts as a residential battery storage system and/or a backup generator in a residential microgrid configuration during a grid outage. Residential energy data collected from a smart grid testbed is used with a custom PEV model to assess the performance (in terms of duration and power output) of a BEV or PHEV used for backup power. Our earlier results quantify the extent to which photovoltaic (PV) generation and the characteristics of a PEV (battery size, gasoline availability) affect the backup duration during an electric grid outage. Strategies to further increase backup duration and non-continuous self-sustaining off-grid alternatives were found in our early V2H research. Varied amounts of load curtailment and PHEV engine-generator control improvements are modeled in subsequent research.