Targeting the reading and behavioral skills of young struggling readers with and at-risk for EBD
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The effects of a multicomponent, reading and behavior support, intervention on the oral reading fluency, word-identification fluency, and off-task behavior performance of first and second grade students demonstrating reading and behavior risk were explored. The intervention was implemented as a supplement to classroom instruction within the secondary tier of a Response to Intervention model. Three students participated in the study. Student achievement scores on curriculum-based measures of oral reading and word-identification fluency were reported. In addition, concurrent data on student off-task behavior was gathered and reported. A multiple baseline (A-B-C) across participants design was implemented to compare a fluency-building only condition (phase B) to baseline (phase A), and a behavior support condition (phase C) to the fluency-building phase. Results of visual data analysis indicated variable performance across participants and phases, with overall increases in reading fluency and decreases in off-task behavior noted across participants and phases. In addition, data analysis revealed the addition of the behavioral support component resulted in (a) decreases in student off-task behavior and (b) greater gains in reading fluency when compared to performance during the previous phase. At the onset of the study, all participants demonstrated reading and behavior risk. Probes administered in the final weeks of the study revealed that two participants were no longer in the reading risk range. Despite large gains in oral reading fluency (+35 words correct per minute), one participant was still in the risk range. All participants exceeded their respective realistic and ambitious reading goals. Limitations, recommendations for future research, and implications for practice are presented.