Nanoparticle characterization with nanopore sensors
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A silicon nitride, solid-state nanopore sensor for characterizing nanoparticles suspended in an aqueous medium is presented, and the fundamental theory of resistive-pulse sensing based on the Coulter principle is derived. Careful analytical and experimental considerations in the interrelationships between the electrolyte concentration, nanoparticles, applied bias voltage and electronic equipment are described in detail. Various electromagnetc noise sources present in low-current electrochemical experiments are identified and eliminated. Finally, 100 nm charged polystyrene beads are analyzed by pores ranging in diameter from 300 -- 500 nm. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the expected event depths and event durations as described by mathematical models found in the literature.