The International Olympic Committee faced with political interference : winning the battle between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, 1952-1979
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This thesis studies the IOC’s role during the 28-year battle between the PRC and the ROC for the exclusive right to represent China. It is argued that the IOC upheld its non-politicization principle, which suffered slight deviation, while showing certain flexibility. The flexibility refers to the willingness to make concession and professing politics. The IOC adhered to the principles through the years, but was more pragmatic on the Two Chinas Question and proactively played the game for desired outcome in the 1970s. It is the pragmatism that allowed the IOC to minimize external political infringement and maintain the inclusiveness of the Olympic Movement. Ironically, playing the political game turned out to be the key to end political interference. This thesis deems the Nagoya Resolution to be a hardly political solution, because it did not have substantial political influence or generate further political disputes. Therefore, compromise made by the Olympic Movement can be justified by the situation and the eventual result. The Olympic Movement was the biggest winner among the three parties of the battle. The IOC and the Olympic Movement gained expansion and lost a smattering of integrity. Whether the loss matters is arguable, and in comparison, the PRC and the ROC suffered much more loss. The ROC's Olympic Committee kept its membership but had to relinquish political sigils. Despite the reinstatement of its NOC and the ban on ROC’s political presence, the PRC had to accept the reality of dual recognition. What they lost or failed to achieve was exactly what they fought the politicized battle for. The IOC's autonomy was ground on which the IOC eventually solved the Two Chinas Question with minimum political exploitation. The non-intergovernmental and apolitical decision-making mechanism helped the Olympic Movement stand firm and survive relentless exploitation of super powers and international conflicts. The Presidents' tremendous influence was made evident by the different paths in the development of the Two China Question during two Presidents' respective terms. They Executive Board, who discussed the matter deeply, balanced the IOC’s position when the Presidents went too far with their personal opinions.