New platforms for electronic devices: n-channel organic field-effect transistors, complementary circuits, and nanowire transistors
This work focused on the fabrication and electrical characterization of electronic devices and the applications include the n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic complementary circuits, and the germanium nanowire transistors. In organic devices, carbonyl-functionalized [alpha],[omega]-diperfluorohexyl quaterthiophenes (DFHCO-4T) and N,N' --bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI-8CN2) are used as n-type semiconductors. The effect of dielectric/electrode surface treatment on the response of bottom-contact devices was also examined to maximize the device performance. Some of innovative techniques that employ the conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) / poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) for the fabrication of OFETs, were compared and investigated. The device performance and the fabrication yield were also considered. Organic complementary ring oscillators and D flip-flops were demonstrated with PDI-8CN2 and pentacene as the n-type and ptype material, respectively. Both circuits recorded the highest speed that any organic transistor-based complementary circuit has achieved to date. The speed of these complementary circuits will be enhanced by increasing the mobility of n-channel further as well as reducing channel lengths and overlap capacitances between the source/drain electrodes and the gate. The semiconductors should be solution processible to be compatible with the inexpensive fabrication techniques envisioned for printed electronic circuits. PDI-8CN2 was used for solution-processed n-channel OFETs and the various parameters are compared for the optimization of devices. Utilizing optimized process parameters and surface treatments for solution-deposited PDI-8CN2 OFETs, we have successfully shown the first fabrication of complementary organic ring oscillators and Dflip flops by the micro-injection of the solution of both p-type and n-type materials in air. One of the potential platforms for low cost fabrication on flexible substrates is the use of inorganic semiconductor nanowires. Accordingly, the germanium nanowire FETs were fabricated and characterized. Conductivity enhanced PEDOT/PSS was employed as the electrode material for nanowire transistors to improve the electrical contacts to the source and drain.