Characteristics of foamed asphalt binders for warm mix asphalt applications
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An increase in environmental awareness and energy concerns had recently prompted efforts to make pavement construction cheaper and more environmentally friendly. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is an asphalt mixture production technology that promises to reduce production costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Foamed asphalt binder is increasingly being used to produce WMA. This dissertation addresses several issues related to the use of foamed asphalt binder for WMA applications. The first objective of the research presented in this dissertation is to develop a method and metrics to precisely quantify the characteristics of asphalt binder foams. Laboratory measurements were obtained using the newly developed method to evaluate the extent and stability of foams produced using different asphalt binders at different water contents and laboratory foaming devices. Results demonstrate that the method developed is promising in terms of its ability to provide a detailed history of the behavior of foamed asphalt binder as the foam collapses. In addition, results indicate that the method is sensitive to distinguish between foaming characteristics of different asphalt binders as well as different water contents and foaming devices. The second objective of this study was to relate intrinsic properties of the asphalt binder to its foaming characteristics. A physical model was developed for expansion of asphalt binder foam based on foam physics and fluid mechanics of micro-droplets. The model relates foamant water and asphalt binder mixing efficiency with the surface tension of the asphalt binder. The model can be used to predict which binder can be effectively foamed and used, and whether any chemical modification to the binder is necessary to achieve the same. Results indicate that only a small percentage of water is effective in foaming the asphalt binder. The last objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of foaming on asphalt binder residues and mixture workability and coatability. The influence of foaming process on the rheological properties of asphalt binder residue was investigated. In addition, the significance of foamed asphalt binder characteristics on mixture workability and coatability was evaluated. Results from this last part of the study can be used to optimize binder foaming such that the resulting mixture is coated and compacted without compromising performance.