Precision pinch isometric force, force variability, accuracy, and task time among the fourth through eighth decades of life
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This dissertation encompassed three studies involving precision pinch strength and 5% submaximal fine-motor control. One hundred participants (30-79 years old) were divided into 10-year categories, with 10 males and 10 females in each decade. A Manual Force Quantification System containing a platform and force-transducer apparatus, along with a computer and visual monitor, was used. Each subject performed four tasks -- maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), force-matching, tracing, and tracking -- by applying force on the transducers with the thumb and index finger while attempting to produce a desired force level or task displayed on the computer monitor. The first study measured MVIC, accuracy (rRMSE, Root Mean Square Relative Error), and force variability (Coefficient of Variation, CV) during a 5% MVIC force-matching task. The second study measured accuracy (rRMSE), task time, and group variability during a 5% MVIC tracing task. The third study measured accuracy and group variability during a 5% MVIC tracking task. Tracing and tracking were each divided into six Segments (S1-S6), three of which (S1-S3) required the increasing application of force from 50g up to 5% MVIC and the remaining three (S4-S6) requiring a release of force from MVIC down to 1% MVIC. The force-matching and force-tracking task times were scaled to each participant's MVIC, while the tracing task was performed at the participant's self-selected speed. The participants were encouraged to be accurate but also to trace the target line as quickly as possible. Declines in precision pinch strength and force control began to occur in the 70s for easier force-control tasks and in their 60s for more advanced force-tracking tasks. Men were stronger than women at all age levels. Participants in their 30s were the fastest; those in their 40s, 50s, and 60s slowed down to be accurate; and those in their 70s moved faster but were the least accurate. Three segmental factors affected error and time: low force level, releasing as opposed to applying force, and location along the target line with respect to reversal or ending points. Finally, variables for females were more heterogeneous at earlier decades than for men, and the older the age group was, the greater the variable heterogeneity was.