Phylogeny and floral host relationships of Callandrena (Hymenoptera : Andrenidae : Andrena)
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Callandrena, a subgenus of 80 described species of bees in the genus Andrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) is shown, via phylogenetic analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, to be polyphyletic. The characters previously uniting this group have likely arisen by convergent evolution among unrelated lineages that have independently specialized on flowers of the Asteraceae for pollen consumption. At this time, we cannot definitively state whether there are two or three clades of bees formerly ascribed to Callandrena, nor whether one clade may belong to the European subgenus Chrysandrena as has been proposed, so we do not erect a new subgenus of Andrena at this time. The limits of Callandrena sensu stricto are provisionally delimited based on a single morphological character. The phylogenetic relationships of the two groups relative to other Andrena subgenera are discussed in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, Clade B, as defined for Callandrena in Chapter 2, is used to investigate the evolution of pollen host choice. Diet breadth is determined by analysis of pollen loads of at least 20 individual females per species. The choice of host and degree of specificity are then mapped onto the molecular phylogeny to investigate the evolution of these traits. Oligolecty appears to be the ancestral state in Andrena; polylecty has evolved several times; and reversals to oligolecty within these lineages have also occurred. Within the oligolectic lineage studied, host shifts were not uncommon. During the course of this study, a number of undescribed species were collected. Five are described in Chapter 4.