Sand Penetration By High-Speed Projectiles
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Tungsten projectiles were shot into sand at velocities between 600 and 2200 m/s. Penetration was maximum at about 775 m/s. Below that velocity, projectiles were apparently stabilized by a fin set. Above that velocity, projectiles were broken by transverse loads. High-speed penetration resulted in comminution of sand particles, reducing their size by about 1000 times.