TEM Measurements Of Grain Orientation In Nanoscale Cu Interconnects Using ACT
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Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used in conjunction with an Automated Crystallography for TEM (ACT) to index the crystal orientation of 180 nm wide Cu interconnects using the Nano Beam Diffraction (NBD) mode in the TEM. An FEM software, OOF2, was used to simulate the local quasi-hydrostatic stresses in the interconnect lines based on the local orientation data, and was compared results obtained from stress induced void (SIV) formation in 180nm Cu interconnects studied through in-situ TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) heating. SIV were induced at temperatures of around 230 degrees C. Correlation between the stress simulations and the experimental results show that point of high local stresses and high stress gradients seem to influence the formation of the SIV in the Cu interconnect lines. A description of a new technique, called D-STEM that allows for obtaining diffraction patterns from crystals only a few nanometers in size is also given, that will allow for characterizing even smaller width Cu interconnects for future generation microelectronic devices.