Mobile localization : approach and applications
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Localization is critical to a number of wireless network applications. In many situations GPS is not suitable. This dissertation (i) develops novel localization schemes for wireless networks by explicitly incorporating mobility information and (ii) applies localization to physical analytics i.e., understanding shoppers' behavior within retail spaces by leveraging inertial sensors, Wi-Fi and vision enabled by smart glasses. More specifically, we first focus on multi-hop mobile networks, analyze real mobility traces and observe that they exhibit temporal stability and low-rank structure. Motivated by these observations, we develop novel localization algorithms to effectively capture and also adapt to different degrees of these properties. Using extensive simulations and testbed experiments, we demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of our new schemes. Second, we focus on localizing a single mobile node, which may not be connected with multiple nodes (e.g., without network connectivity or only connected with an access point). We propose trajectory-based localization using Wi-Fi or magnetic field measurements. We show that these measurements have the potential to uniquely identify a trajectory. We then develop a novel approach that leverages multi-level wavelet coefficients to first identify the trajectory and then localize to a point on the trajectory. We show that this approach is highly accurate and power efficient using indoor and outdoor experiments. Finally, localization is a critical step in enabling a lot of applications --- an important one is physical analytics. Physical analytics has the potential to provide deep-insight into shoppers' interests and activities and therefore better advertisements, recommendations and a better shopping experience. To enable physical analytics, we build ThirdEye system which first achieves zero-effort localization by leveraging emergent devices like the Google-Glass to build AutoLayout that fuses video, Wi-Fi, and inertial sensor data, to simultaneously localize the shoppers while also constructing and updating the product layout in a virtual coordinate space. Further, ThirdEye comprises of a range of schemes that use a combination of vision and inertial sensing to study mobile users' behavior while shopping, namely: walking, dwelling, gazing and reaching-out. We show the effectiveness of ThirdEye through an evaluation in two large retail stores in the United States.