Thermodynamically consistent modeling and simulation of multiphase flows
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Multiphase flow is a familiar phenomenon from daily life and occupies an important role in physics, engineering, and medicine. The understanding of multiphase flows relies largely on the theory of interfaces, which is not well understood in many cases. To date, the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations and the Cahn-Hilliard equation have represented two major branches of phase-field modeling. The Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations describe a single component fluid material with multiple states of matter, e.g., water and water vapor; the Cahn-Hilliard type models describe multi-component materials with immiscible interfaces, e.g., air and water. In this dissertation, a unified multiphase fluid modeling framework is developed based on rigorous mathematical and thermodynamic principles. This framework does not assume any ad hoc modeling procedures and is capable of formulating meaningful new models with an arbitrary number of different types of interfaces. In addition to the modeling, novel numerical technologies are developed in this dissertation focusing on the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations. First, the notion of entropy variables is properly generalized to the functional setting, which results in an entropy-dissipative semi-discrete formulation. Second, a family of quadrature rules is developed and applied to generate fully discrete schemes. The resulting schemes are featured with two main properties: they are provably dissipative in entropy and second-order accurate in time. In the presence of complex geometries and high-order differential terms, isogeometric analysis is invoked to provide accurate representations of computational geometries and robust numerical tools. A novel periodic transformation operator technology is also developed within the isogeometric context. It significantly simplifies the procedure of the strong imposition of periodic boundary conditions. These attributes make the proposed technologies an ideal candidate for credible numerical simulation of multiphase flows. A general-purpose parallel computing software, named PERIGEE, is developed in this work to provide an implementation framework for the above numerical methods. A comprehensive set of numerical examples has been studied to corroborate the aforementioned theories. Additionally, a variety of application examples have been investigated, culminating with the boiling simulation. Importantly, the boiling model overcomes several challenges for traditional boiling models, owing to its thermodynamically consistent nature. The numerical results indicate the promising potential of the proposed methodology for a wide range of multiphase flow problems.