Development of scalar and velocity imaging diagnostics for supersonic hypermixing strut injector flowfields
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A new diagnostic technique for studying the turbulent mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing flowfields is developed and implemented in two Mach 3 mixing flowfields. The diagnostic utilizes simultaneous particle image velocimetry and quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence of krypton gas to study the interaction between turbulent scalar and velocity fields. The fluorescence properties of krypton gas are determined; measurements of the pressure and temperature dependence of the collisional quenching rates and cross-sections are made for various mixtures with krypton. The gases tested in this fashion include helium, nitrogen, air, oxygen, and ethylene. Additional measurements are performed to measure the relative two-photon absorption cross-section for krypton gas. The non-dimensional quenching rates are found to follow a power-law dependence for temperature, while the pressure dependence of the total quenching rate is found to be linear. Two injection flowfields are studied for their general topology and kinematic characteristcs. The first injector model is a basic injector meant to serve as a baseline case; there are no hypermixing elements present in this model. The second model is an asymmetric, unswept hypermixing injector featuring 15 degree expansive ramps flanking a central block. These studies utilize particle image velocimetry in planar and stereoscopic configurations in various planes. Results for the mean flowfield show distinct differences between the two flowfields; the planar injector flowfield is shown to be highly two-dimensional and exhibits minimal coherent unsteady behavior. The hypermixing injector flowfield exhibits a highly three-dimensional wake, with a pair of stream-wise vortices driving both mean deviations in the flowfield and considerable vortical coupling in the span-wise direction. Simultaneous krypton PLIF and PIV are employed in the two mixing flowfields. An assay of the dependence of the krypton mole fraction calculations on the fluorescence signal is performed. The overall sensitivity and the resulting dynamic range of the calibration is dictated largely by the reference mole fraction. Additionally, several different theoretical models of the temperature dependence of the fluorescence signal are studied to assess their validity and influence over the PLIF calibration procedure. Finally, the technique is employed in the two mixing flowfields, and a brief analysis of the mean and unsteady behavior of the two is conducted.