Water hammer fracture diagnostics
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A sudden change in flow in a confined system results in the formation of a series of pressure pulses known as a water hammer. Pump shutdown at the conclusion of a hydraulic fracture treatment frequently generates a water hammer, which sends a pressure pulse down the wellbore that interacts with the created fracture before returning towards the surface. This study confirms that created hydraulic fractures alter the period, amplitude, and duration of the water hammer signal. Water hammer pressure signals were simulated with a previously presented numerical model that combined the continuity and momentum equations of the wellbore with a created hydraulic fracture represented by a RCI series circuit. Field data from several multi-stage stimulation treatments were history matched with the numerical model by iteratively altering R, C, and I until an appropriate match was obtained. Equivalent fracture dimensions were calculated from R, C, and I, and were in agreement with acquired micro-seismic SRV. Finally, the obtained R, C, and I values were compared to SRV and production log data. Capacitance was directly correlated with SRV, while resistance was inversely correlated with SRV, and no correlations with production data were observed.