Exercise training and sleep quality in young adults from the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study
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Study Objectives. Sleep is regulated by internal mechanisms that respond to environmental cues. Physical activity is one external cue that can affect sleep. It has been suggested that exercise affects sleep in a variety of ways, including influencing neurotransmitter levels and altering circadian rhythms. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported sleep quality both before and after a well- defined exercise protocol. Design, Setting, and Participants. The TIGER study involves a 15-week aerobic exercise intervention conducted in young adults (n=2,027, mean age 21.8 ± 5 y). Participants were required to engage in 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at 65-85% maximal heart rate reserve three times/week. Multivariate regression was used to identify factors associated with sleep quality and duration. Measurements and Results. Multiple measures of body size/composition, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were obtained on all participants. Sleep quality and duration were accessed via a condensed sleep quality profile (SQP). Prior to exercise, age (p<0.001), gender (p<0.008) and overweight/obesity status (p<0.001), but not race/ethnicity, were all significantly associated with SQP score. Age (p<0.002), and race/ethnicity (p<0.05) were significantly associated with sleep duration, with African Americans and Hispanics having significantly shorter sleep times compared to non-Hispanic whites. SQP score was not significantly different following chronic exercise training. Conclusions. Although overweight/obesity groups had significantly different sleep quality scores before and after exercise, sleep quality did not change for subjects after 15 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention.