Computations of strongly forced laminar cold-flow jet and methane-air diffusion flames
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Previous work has shown that for sufficiently high periodic forcing amplitudes, laminar diffusion flames can burn in an effectively partially premixed mode. Experimental observations show that the luminosity and sooting properties of the forced flames are significantly modified by the presence of strong forcing. In this work, simulations are performed to study the effects of strong forcing on flow field development in strongly forced laminar isothermal jets and methane air diffusion flames. Unforced and strongly forced cold-flow jets are simulated using a higher order finite volume CFD code. The jet was forced by varying the jet exit velocity over a range of forcing amplitudes and frequencies and it was found that the jet Strouhal number (St) was the important parameter in characterizing flowfield development. Further, the forced jets showed increased entrainment and increased entrainment rates as compared to the non-forced jets. The computations are extended to laminar methane–air diffusion flames. The combustion reactions were modeled using detailed gas-phase chemistry and complex thermo-physical properties. The radiation heat transfer was modeled using the S-6 Discrete Ordinates Method. A 2 equation soot chemistry model for soot nucleation, surface growth and oxidation was used. First an unforced flickering methane–air diffusion flame was modeled and then the flame was forced by varying the amplitude and frequency of the fuel velocity in the nozzle. Cases where the peak velocity in the fuel stream reached 6 times the mean velocity are examined. The internal nozzle flow was also simulated since the near-nozzle region was of particular interest due to the strong mixing processes occurring there and the subsequent effect on the flame properties. Lifted forced flames were also examined, and it was found that the partial premixing in the near nozzle region and modified gas phase chemistry in the forced flames can explain the reduction in soot production for the strongly forced flames.