Development of a two-phase flow coupled capacitance resistance model
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The Capacitance Resistance Model (CRM) is a reservoir model based on a data-driven approach. It stems from the continuity equation and takes advantage of the usually abundant rate data to achieve a synergy of analytical model and data-driven approach. Minimal information (rates and bottom-hole pressure) is required to inexpensively characterize the reservoir. Important information, such as inter-well connectivity, reservoir compressibility effects, etc., can be easily and readily evaluated. The model also suggests optimal injection schemes in an effort to maximize ultimate oil recovery, and hence can assist real time reservoir analysis to make more informed management decisions. Nevertheless, an important limitation in the current CRM model is that it only treats the reservoir flow as single-phase flow, which does not favor capturing physics when the saturation change is large, such as for an immature water flood. To overcome this limitation, we develop a two-phase flow coupled CRM model that couples the pressure equation (fluid continuity equation) and the saturation equation (oil mass balance). Through this coupling, the model parameters such as the connectivity, the time constant, temporal oil saturation, etc., are estimated using nonlinear multivariate regression to history match historical production data. Incorporating the physics of two-phase displacement brings several advantages and benefits to the CRM model, such as the estimation of total mobility change, more accurate prediction of oil production, broader model application range, and better adaptability to complicated field scenarios. Also, the estimated saturation within the drainage volume of each producer can provide insights with respect to the field remaining oil saturation distribution. Synthetic field case studies are carried out to demonstrate the different capabilities of the coupled CRM model in homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs with different geological features. The physical meanings of model parameters are well explained and validated through case studies. The results validate the coupled CRM model and show improved accuracy in model parameters obtained through the history match. The prediction of oil production is also significantly improved compared to the current CRM model. A more reliable oil rate prediction enables further optimization to adjust injection strategies. The coupled CRM model has been shown to be fast and stable. Moreover, sensitivity analyses are conducted to study and understand the impact of the input information (e.g., relative permeability, viscosity) upon the output model parameters (e.g., connectivity, time constants). This analysis also proves that the model parameters from the two-phase coupled model can combine both reservoir compressibility and mobility effects.