Flow, nutrient, and stable isotope dynamics of groundwater in the parafluvial/hyporheic zone of a regulated river during a small pulse
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Periodic releases from an upstream dam cause rapid stage fluctuations in the Colorado River near Austin, Texas. These daily pulses modulate fluid exchange and residence times in the hyporheic region, where biogeochemical reactions are pronounced. We installed two transects of wells perpendicular to the river to examine in detail the reactions occurring in this zone of surface-water and groundwater exchange. One well transect recorded physical water level fluctuations and allowed us to map hydraulic head gradients and fluid movement. The second transect allowed for water sample collection at three discrete depths. Samples were collected from 12 wells every 2 hours for a 24-hour period and were analyzed for nutrients, carbon, major ions, and stable isotopes. The results provide a detailed picture of biogeochemical processes in the bank environment during low flow/drought conditions in a regulated river. Findings indicate that a pulse that causes a change in river stage of approximately 16-centimeters does not cause significant mixing in the bank. Under these conditions, the two systems act independently and exhibit only slight mixing at the interface.