Computational two-phase flow and fluid-structure interaction with application to seabed scour
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A general framework is described for the solution of two-phase fluid-object interaction problems on the basis of coupling a distributed-Lagrange-multiplier fictitious domain method and a level-set method, intended for application to the problem of seabed scour by ice ridges. The resulting equations are discretized in space using stabilized finite-element methods and integrated in time using the generalized-α method. This approach is simple to implement and applicable to both structured and unstructured meshes in two and three dimensions. By means of examples, it is shown that despite the simplicity of the approach, good results are obtained in comparison with other more computationally demanding methods. A robust approach is utilized for constructing signed-distance functions on arbitrary meshes by introducing artificial numerical diffusivity to improve the robustness of classical signed-distance construction approaches without resorting to common pseudo-time relaxation. Under this approach, signed-distance functions can be rapidly constructed while preserving the numerical convergence properties and, generally, having minimal interfacial perturbation. The method is then applied with a modified deformation procedure for fast and efficient mesh adaptivity, including a discussion how it may be used in computational fluid dynamics. The two-phase fluid-object interaction approach is then customized for modeling of the seabed scour and soil-pipe interaction. In this approach, complex history-dependent soil constitutive models are replaced with a simple strain-rate dependent model. Utilization of this constitutive model along with the framework developed earlier leads to the treatment of seabed scour as a two-phase fluid-object interaction, and the soil-pipe interaction as a fluid-structure interaction problem without the need for remeshing. Good agreement with past experimental and numerical studies are obtained using our approach. The dissertation is concluded by conducting a parametric study of seabed scour in two- and three-dimensions.