Conducting polymer hydrogels for high-performance electrochemical devices
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Conducting polymer hydrogels (CPHs) is a class of unique materials that synergize the advantages of conducting polymers (CPs) and polymer hydrogels together. It has been employed in many high-performance electrochemical devices for years, such as energy storage and biosensors. However, large limitations of applying CPHs into the abovementioned areas have been facing the researcher for a long time, mainly due to the difficulties from complicated materials synthesis and untenable nanostructures for potential applications. The drawbacks of previously reported CPHs have put numerous disadvantages onto their applications, partially because they have, for example, high prices, untunable microscale or nanoscale architectures, environmentally hazardous properties, and unscalable and time-consuming synthesis processes. In this thesis, we proposed a novel route for carrying out CPHs by one-step organics synthesis at ambient conditions. The CPHs have hierarchically porous nanostructures crosslinked in a three-dimensional (3D) way, which enable its stable mechanical, unique chemical and physical properties, and outstanding electrochemical properties for potential applicability in long-term energy storage devices and highly sensitive biosensors. With highly controllable nanostructures of the CPHs, our novel concept and material system could possibly be utilized in a broad range of electrochemical applications, including but not limited to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) electrodes, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), biofuel cells, medical electrodes, printable electronic devices, and biosensors.