Internal crossflow effects on turbine airfoil film cooling adiabatic effectiveness with compound angle round holes
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Internal crossflow is an important element to actual gas turbine blade cooling; however, there are very few studies in open literature that have documented its effects on turbine blade film cooling. Experiments measuring adiabatic effectiveness were conducted to investigate the effects of perpendicular crossflow on a row of 45 degree compound angle, cylindrical film cooling holes. Tests included a standard plenum condition, a baseline crossflow case consisting of a smooth-walled channel, and various crossflow configurations with ribs. The ribs were angled to the direction of prevailing internal crossflow at 45 and 135 degrees and were positioned at different locations. Experiments were conducted at a density ratio of DR=1.5 for a range of blowing ratios including M=0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. Results showed that internal crossflow can significantly influence adiabatic effectiveness when compared to the standard plenum condition. The implementation of ribs generally decreased the adiabatic effectiveness when compared to the smooth-walled crossflow case. The highest adiabatic effectiveness measurements were recorded for the smooth-walled case in which crossflow was directed against the spanwise hole orientation angle. Tests indicated that the direction of perpendicular crossflow in relation to the hole orientation can significantly influence the adiabatic effectiveness. Among the rib crossflow tests, rib configurations that directed the coolant forward in the direction of the mainstream resulted in higher adiabatic effectiveness measurements. However, no other parameters could consistently be identified correlating to increased film cooling performance. It is likely that a combination of factors are responsible for influencing performance, including internal local pressure caused by the ribs, the internal channel flow field, jet exit velocity profiles, and in-hole vortices.