Development of an integrated building load and ground source heat pump model to assess heat pump and ground loop design and performance in a commercial office building
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Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) offer an efficient method for cooling and heating buildings, reducing energy usage and operating cost. In hot, arid regions such as Texas and the southwest United States, building load imbalance towards cooling causes design and performance challenges to GSHP systems in residential and commercial building applications. An integrated building load and GSHP model is developed in this thesis to test approaches to reduce GSHP cost, to properly size ground heat exchanger (GHEX) installations and to offer methods to improve GSHP performance in commercial buildings. The integrated model is comprised of a three-story office building, heat pumps, air handling system and a GHEX. These component models were integrated in the Matlab® Simulink® modeling environment, which allows for easy model modification and expansion. The building-load model was developed in HAMBASE, which simulates the thermal and hygric response of each zone in the building to external weather and internal loads. The building-load model was validated using the ASHRAE 140-2007 Standard Method of Test and with results from EnergyPlus. The heat pump model was developed as a performance map, based on data commonly provided by heat pump manufacturers. This approach allows for easy expansion of the number and type of heat pump models supported. The GHEX model was developed at Oklahoma State University and is based on Eskilson’s g-function model of vertical borehole operation. The GHEX model accurately represents the interaction between boreholes and the ground temperature response over short and long time-intervals. The GHEX model uses GLHEPRO files for parameter inputs. Long time-interval simulations of the integrated model are provided to assess the sensitivity of the GSHP system to various model parameters. These studies show that: small changes in the total GHEX length reduce system cost with minimal impact on performance; increased borehole spacing improves system performance with no additional cost; supplemental heat rejection reduces installation costs and improves system performance; industry-recommended design cutoff temperatures properly size the GHEX system; and, while cooling is the greatest contributor to operating cost in the southwest and southcentral United States, heating is the limiting design case for GHEX sizing.