Perpendicular And Parallel Field Magnetoresistance In Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Bi2Te3
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The topological insulator Bi2Te3 has been grown on Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. Reflection high energy electron diffraction, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ex situ x-ray diffraction studies have been performed to analyze the quality of the growth. These analyses suggest a very good layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of Bi2Te3 on the atomically at Si surface. The magnetoresistance of the samples has been studied with magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the sample surface, up to 9 T, over a temperature range of 2 K to 20 K. A sharp dip at low fields (0 T - 1 T) and near-linear behavior for high fields (> 4 T) have been observed in the perpendicular field magnetoresistance. The low field dip is due to weak antilocalization that agrees well with the simplified Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. It has been demonstrated that both the low field dip and the high field near-linear behavior can be explained by the original Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula alone in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling. From the fitting of the perpendicular field magnetoresistance the phase coherence length, the mean free path and the spin-orbit relaxation time have been estimated. The phase coherence length shows power law dependence with temperature indicating two dimensional nature of the transport. The power law also suggests electron electron interaction as the prominent dephasing mechanism. The out-of-plane spin-orbit relaxation time is determined to be small and the in-plane spin-orbit relaxation time is found to be comparable to the momentum relaxation time. The estimation of these charge and spin transport parameters is useful for topological insulator based magneto electric device applications. It also has been shown that the strong spin-orbit coupling suppresses the Zeeman contribution in perpendicular field magnetoresistance. The logarithmic divergence of perpendicular field magnetoresistance with temperature for low temperature range (2 K - 20 K) at high fields shows the presence of Coulomb interaction in the spin singlet channel. For magnetoresistance with the field parallel to the sample surface, the observed magnetoresistance has parabolic dependence for small fields (0 T - 0.6 T) and logarithmic dependence for large fields (> 3 T), which is due to the Zeeman effect. It is found that the data are inconsistent with only the Maekawa and Fukuyama theory of non interacting electrons with Zeeman contributions to the transport, but are consistent with theory if one also takes into account the electron electron interaction and the Zeeman splitting term in the electron electron interaction theory of Lee and Ramakrishnan. The Zeeman g-factor and the strength of Coulomb scattering due to electron electron interaction have been estimated from fitting of the parallel field magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance also shows anisotropy with respect to the field directions. The angle dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance can be fitted well by the original HLN theory alone. The anisotropy can have potential application in anisotropic magnetic sensors.