Total delay optimization for column reduction multipliers considering non-uniform arrival times to the final adder
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Column Reduction Multiplier techniques provide the fastest multiplier designs and involve three steps. First, a partial product array of terms is formed by logically ANDing each bit of the multiplier with each bit of the multiplicand. Second, adders or counters are used to reduce the number of terms in each bit column to a final two. This activity is commonly described as column reduction and occurs in multiple stages. Finally, some form of carry propagate adder (CPA) is applied to the final two terms in order to sum them to produce the final product of the multiplication. Since forming the partial products, in the first step, is simply forming an array of the logical AND's of two bits, there is little opportunity for delay improvement for the first step. There has been much work done in optimizing the reduction stages for column multipliers in the second reduction step. All of the reduction approaches of the second step result in non-uniform arrival times to the input of the final carry propagate adder in the final step. The designs for carry propagate adders have been done assuming that the input bits all have the same arrival time. It is not evident that the non-uniform arrival times from the columns impacts the performance of the multiplier. A thorough analysis of the several column reduction methods and the impact of carry propagate adder designs, along with the column reduction design step, to provide the fastest possible final results, for an array of multiplier widths has not been undertaken. This dissertation investigates the design impact of three carry propagate adders, with different performance attributes, on the final delay results for four column reduction multipliers and suggests general ways to optimize the total delay for the multipliers.