Second language collaborative writing in face-to-face and online environments
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Collaborative writing, the joint construction of a text by two or more authors, is an instructional practice originally used in first language classrooms. More recently, it has been applied in second language (L2) learning contexts. Collaborative writing can take place in the classroom, with pairs or small groups of learners working face-to-face and interacting verbally to make decisions about the content and form of their text. It can also take place in online contexts, allowing larger groups of learners to collaborate on longer texts over a longer period of time. The aim of this paper is to explore empirical research undertaken on second language (L2) collaborative writing tasks in face-to-face and online environments. Attention is paid to the instructional contexts in which these tasks have been used, including educational settings, learners’ proficiency levels, and task types. After these elements are described, the paper integrates and analyzes research concerning the outcomes of collaborative writing tasks, namely the nature of languaging and peer scaffolding, the writing process, language learning, text quality, and learners’ perceptions of collaborative writing. The paper concludes with pedagogical implications and directions for future research.