Incorporating observed and unobserved heterogeneity in urban work travel mode choice modeling
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An individual's intrinsic mode preference and responsiveness to level-of-service variables affects her or his travel mode choice for a trip. The mode preference and responsiveness will, in general, vary across individuals based on observed (to an analyst) and unobserved (to an analyst) individual characteristics. The current paper formulates a multinomial-logit based model of travel mode choice that accommodates variations in mode preferences and responsiveness to level-of-service due to both observed and unobserved individual characteristics. The model parameters are estimated using a maximum simulated log- likelihood approach. The model is applied to examine urban work travel mode choice in a multiday sample of workers from the San Francisco Bay area.