A geographic data model for groundwater systems
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Concepts and object classes of a data model for representing groundwater systems within GIS are presented, expanding the existing Arc Hydro surface water data model. The data model is designed to achieve four goals: representing regional groundwater systems, representing site scale groundwater information, enabling integration of surface water and groundwater information, and facilitating the connection of groundwater simulation models with GIS. Guided by these goals, a set of conceptual classes is identified for representing basic groundwater features, and these concepts are represented in a geodatabase design named the Arc Hydro groundwater data model. ArcGIS tools are developed to work over the data model classes: the Arc Hydro groundwater toolbar is a set of ArcScene tools for creating three-dimensional features such as stratigraphy representations, cross sections, and volume models. MODFLOW Tools are vi geoprocessing tools for populating the simulation component of the data model, and SQL based tools are used for creating two- and three-dimensional views of groundwater time series. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the data model classes and tools. The first shows a regional three-dimensional representation of hydrostratigraphy in the North Carolina coastal aquifer system and illustrates the hydrogeology component of the data model and the functionality of the Arc Hydro groundwater toolbar. The second example shows the use of SQL based tools for creating two-dimensional water quality and water level maps in the Ogallala aquifer in Texas, and the third example shows the creation of threedimensional views of temporal information from the MADE site in Mississippi. The fourth case study demonstrates the MODFLOW geoprocessing tools for representing a MODFLOW model of the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer in Texas. Results of this study outline the main concepts and data structures for representing spatial and temporal groundwater information, and provide a blueprint for creating a geodatabase and storing groundwater data. In addition to the complete data model, a data model framework is defined for outlining the core classes needed for representing groundwater data. Technological advances include the representation, and creation of three-dimensional geographic features, and methods for storing and analyzing two and three-dimensional groundwater time series.