Time-lapse seismic monitoring for enhanced oil recovery and carbon capture and storage field site at Cranfield field, Mississippi
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The Cranfield field, located in southwest Mississippi, is an enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration project that has been under a continuous supercritical CO₂ injection by Denbury Onshore LLC since 2008. Two 3D seismic surveys were collected in 2007, pre-CO₂ injection, and in 2010 after > 2 million tons of CO₂ was injected into the subsurface. The goal of this study is to characterize a time-lapse response between two seismic surveys to understand where injected CO₂ is migrating and to map the injected CO₂ plume edge. In order to characterize a time-lapse response, the seismic surveys were cross equalized using a trace-by-trace time shift. A normalized root-mean-square (NRMS) difference value was then calculated to determine the repeatability of the data. The data were considered to have “good repeatability,” so a difference volume was calculated and showed a coherent seismic amplitude anomaly located through the area of interest. A coherent seismic amplitude anomaly was also present below the area of interest, so a time delay analysis was performed and calculated a significant added velocity change. A Gassmann-Wood fluid substitution workflow was then performed at two well locations to predict a saturation profile and observe post-injection expected changes in compressional velocity values at variable CO₂ saturations. Finally, acoustic impedance inversions were performed on the two seismic surveys and an acoustic impedance difference volume was calculated to compare with the fluid substitution results. The Gassmann-Wood fluid substitution results predicted smaller changes in acoustic impedance than those observed from acoustic impedance inversions. At the Cranfield field, time-lapse seismic analysis was successful in mapping and quantifying the acoustic impedance change for some seismic amplitude anomalies associated with injected CO₂. Additional well log data and refinement of the fluid substitution workflow and the model-based inversion performed is necessary to obtain more accurate impedance changes throughout the field instead of at a single well location.