Modeling of transport processes for the reduction of energy use in commercial buildings
MetadataShow full item record
Buildings are responsible for over a third of the energy consumption in the United States annually. This energy consumption contributes to some of the most pressing problems facing our society. Modeling of buildings and their systems is an integral part of most strategies for reduction of energy use in buildings. Modeling allows for informed building designs, optimization of systems, and greater market acceptance of new energy-saving technologies. This work addresses two particular modeling applications concerned with reduction of energy usage in buildings: convective heat transfer modeling in perimeter zones, and liquid desiccant dehumidification modeling. The first objective of this work is concerned with modeling convective transport in buildings and creation of inputs for energy modeling programs and passive pollutant removal calculations. This is accomplished through four investigations. In the first investigation, the influence of floor diffusers on convection heat transfer at perimeter zone windows in commercial buildings is measured. In the second, the impact of blinds on convection under a variety of circumstances is quantified. In the third, movement of air jets issuing from floor diffusers is predicted, and the effect of buoyancy on convective heat transfer at perimeter zone surfaces is analyzed. In the fourth investigation, convective mass transfer at indoor surfaces is investigated. Full scale experiments were conducted in support of these four investigations and semi-empirical correlations vii consistent with theory are given to predict jet movement and convective transport under a variety of circumstances. The second objective of this dissertation is concerned with modeling and analysis of liquid desiccant dehumidification systems and is pursued through three additional investigations. The first is concerned with modeling small-scale transport within the channels of a liquid desiccant absorber and regenerator. Physical and empirical models are developed which agree well with laboratory data. During the second investigation, a dynamic model of a liquid desiccant dehumidification system is developed and integrated into a full-building energy simulation. This is used to assess the potential applicability of the system in supermarkets in various climates. The models developed are used to optimize the system and develop a procedure to size components in the final investigation.