Grounded language learning models for ambiguous supervision
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Communicating with natural language interfaces is a long-standing, ultimate goal for artificial intelligence (AI) agents to pursue, eventually. One core issue toward this goal is "grounded" language learning, a process of learning the semantics of natural language with respect to relevant perceptual inputs. In order to ground the meanings of language in a real world situation, computational systems are trained with data in the form of natural language sentences paired with relevant but ambiguous perceptual contexts. With such ambiguous supervision, it is required to resolve the ambiguity between a natural language (NL) sentence and a corresponding set of possible logical meaning representations (MR). In this thesis, we focus on devising effective models for simultaneously disambiguating such supervision and learning the underlying semantics of language to map NL sentences into proper logical MRs. We present probabilistic generative models for learning such correspondences along with a reranking model to improve the performance further. First, we present a probabilistic generative model that learns the mappings from NL sentences into logical forms where the true meaning of each NL sentence is one of a handful of candidate logical MRs. It simultaneously disambiguates the meaning of each sentence in the training data and learns to probabilistically map an NL sentence to its corresponding MR form depicted in a single tree structure. We perform evaluations on the RoboCup sportscasting corpus, proving that our model is more effective than those proposed by previous researchers. Next, we describe two PCFG induction models for grounded language learning that extend the previous grounded language learning model of Börschinger, Jones, and Johnson (2011). Börschinger et al.’s approach works well in situations of limited ambiguity, such as in the sportscasting task. However, it does not scale well to highly ambiguous situations when there are large sets of potential meaning possibilities for each sentence, such as in the navigation instruction following task first studied by Chen and Mooney (2011). The two models we present overcome such limitations by employing a learned semantic lexicon as a basic correspondence unit between NL and MR for PCFG rule generation. Finally, we present a method of adapting discriminative reranking to grounded language learning in order to improve the performance of our proposed generative models. Although such generative models are easy to implement and are intuitive, it is not always the case that generative models perform best, since they are maximizing the joint probability of data and model, rather than directly maximizing conditional probability. Because we do not have gold-standard references for training a secondary conditional reranker, we incorporate weak supervision of evaluations against the perceptual world during the process of improving model performance. All these approaches are evaluated on the two publicly available domains that have been actively used in many other grounded language learning studies. Our methods demonstrate consistently improved performance over those of previous studies in the domains with different languages; this proves that our methods are language-independent and can be generally applied to other grounded learning problems as well. Further possible applications of the presented approaches include summarized machine translation tasks and learning from real perception data assisted by computer vision and robotics.