Advances in the development and application of a capacitance-resistance model
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Much effort of reservoir engineers is devoted to the time-consuming process of history matching in a simulator to understand the reservoir complexity. Its accuracy is debatable because only a few inputs are known. Several analytical tools have been developed to investigate reservoir heterogeneity. The reciprocal productivity index (RPI) is a tool to measure the pressure support observed at a producer. The log (water-oil ratio or WOR) plot can be used to indicate the presence of a channel. A capacitance-resistance model (CRM) is a simple tool to estimate the connectivity between a producer-injector pair from the production/injection and pressure data. Generally field operators implement an improved recovery plan such as water-alternating-gas (WAG) flood to improve displacement efficiency. However, the existence of heterogeneity compromises its performance. The first objective of this study is to improve the assessment of tertiary flood performance by integrating the CRM with other analytical tools. The integrated method was applied to a miscible flood field in West Texas. The results suggest strong interwell connectivity found more frequently in the NE-SW direction and the different preferential flow paths of injected CO2 and water. Overall, the results provide insights into the current flood status. The operating conditions of a producer dynamically change because of well/field constraints. These changes can induce significant interference in other wells, which cannot be captured by CRM. The second objective of this study is to develop a capacitance-resistance model with producer-producer interaction (CRMP-P). The CRMP-P, derived from the continuity and Darcy’s equations, accounts for producer-producer interactions. The CRMP-P was applied to data from three different reservoir models. The results suggest that the CRMP-P could fit the data with higher precision than CRM. Consequently, the CRMP-P estimates of reservoir properties are more accurate. Moreover, the estimated transmissibility between producers is in agreement with the reservoir models. The CRMP-P was also applied to Omani field data. The transmissibility results are consistent with previous study and the drilling information. The more accurate information on producer-producer interactions and reservoir properties can assist in history-matching, locating infill wells, and reservoir management planning.