Adaptive wireless body medical system
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Advances in wireless technologies in the last ten years have created considerable opportunities as well as challenges for wireless body medical systems. The foremost challenge is how to build a reliable system connecting heterogeneous body sensors and actuators in an open system environment. In this dissertation, we present our work towards this goal. The system addresses four design issues: the underlying network architecture, the network scheduling disciplines, the location determination and tracking methods, and the embedded application execution architecture. We first present the design of an adaptive wireless protocol (MBStarPlus) to provide the basic wireless platform WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network). MBStarPlus is a real-time, secure, robust and flexible wireless network architecture. It is designed to utilize any low-power wireless radio as its physical layer. The TDMA mechanism is adopted for realtime data delivery. The time-slot length is adjustable for flexibility. Multiple technologies are utilized to provide reliability and security. We next investigate how to coordinate the body sensors/actuators that can optimally select from a range (maximum and minimum) of data rates. Two bandwidth scheduling algorithms are proposed. One is a greedy algorithm that works for sensors with limited computational capability. The other is the UMinMax scheduling algorithm that has better scalability and power-saving performance but is more computationally intensive. The third issue addressed in this proposal is how to achieve location determination and tracking by a mix of high-precision but expensive and lower-precision but cost-effective sensors. This is achieved by a novel collaborative location determination scheme ColLoc that can integrate different types of distance measurements into a location estimation algorithm by weighing them according to their precision levels. Through this, a localization service can be both cost-effective and sufficiently accurate. Fourth, in order to minimize the effects of long network latency when the body network scales up, we propose ControlInGateway, an architectural feature that allows a control application to be executed inside the network gateway without the host's involvement. With ControlInGateway, a wireless system could achieve the same control quality as a wired system.