The allylic amination of silyl enol ethers using N, N-bis-(trichloroethoxycarbonyl) sulfur diimide and efforts towards the synthesis of proaporphine alkaloids
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This doctoral dissertation described herein will be comprised of two parts. The first portion will address our efforts towards the synthesis of [alpha]-amino carbonyls from silyl enol ethers and the second portion will describe our unrelated efforts towards the synthesis of proaporphine alkaloids. A full discussion of the relevant literature, experiments and development of the methodologies will be provided along with all relevant experimental data. Part I: The [alpha]-amino carbonyl moiety has great potential for being a very useful synthetic intermediate for the incorporation of nitrogen owing to the synthetic utility and versatility of the carbonyl functional group. Despite this potential the synthesis has long been problematic owing to their tendency to undergo condensation reactions. We aimed to synthesize them utilizing a protected carbonyl in the form of a triisopropylsilyl enol ether and an electrophilic nitrogen source that could incorporate the nitrogen via an ene-[2,3] sigmatropic reaction sequence. To this end we used an N-sulfinyl carbamate as an electrophilic source of nitrogen that could be utilized for a regiospecific allylic amination of alkenes or could be used to form a highly reactive sulfur diimide that could be used for the allylic amination of alkenes or silyl enol ethers. Part II: Many pharmacologically important and synthetically interesting alkaloids have been formed in nature by the o,p oxidative phenolic coupling of various benzyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. One major class of alkaloids derived from this generalized oxidation is the proaporphine alkaloids and they possess an acid labile spirocyclic-dienone system obtained from this coupling. These compounds have great potential for being used for their anesthetic properties. Despite the relative ease of synthesizing the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids the application of the biomimetic oxidative coupling to make the quaternary center of these compounds gives very poor yields. We opted to form this spiro-dienone system by using a two step Suzuki coupling-para phenolate alkylation methodology that had been used to synthesize the related alkaloids codeine and narwedeine. In doing this we opted to extend the practical application of this methodology by the displacement of an alcohol derived leaving group.