Changes in recent effective discharge and geomorphology near the Old River Control on the lower Mississippi River
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The Mississippi River is considered the ultimate single channel meandering river. Five hundred km upstream from its mouth, about 25% of the river’s discharge is diverted into the Atchafalaya River. This diversion is controlled by the Old River Control structure, built by the US Army Corps of Engineers in stages since 1963, to stop the avulsion of the Mississippi River into the Atchafalaya. The study area is a 119 km sandy bedded reach near Old River Control that is highly impacted by engineering measures. Channel dimensions average 1,000 m wide with average thalweg depths of 23 m. The mean annual discharge is 15,000 m3s-1 with a water surface slope of 0.06 m per river mile. In a sandy bedded river, the effective discharge is the discharge which cumulatively transports the most sand. This study evaluates how the Old River Control structure has influenced an adjusting effective discharge between 1978 and 2011. The bed load component of sand transport is included by employing a novel, automated, cross-correlation technique. It was found that the upper limit for discharges that cumulatively transport 85% of the total sand load has decreased from 34,000 m3s-1 to 28,000 m3s-1 between 1978 and 2011. Sand transport from 1982 to 2011 occurred during progressively greater ratios of water discharge to the Atchafalaya River and corresponded to an aggradational trend in the nearby Mississippi River at Red River Landing stream gage. The combination of this sand transport trend and nearby channel aggradation is some indication that the diversion may not be stable and that the avulsion of the lower Mississippi River is ongoing. However, sand was transported at similar discharge ratios in the 1978 to 1982 and 2002 to 2011 periods. Future trends will reveal definitively if these findings indicate that the lower Mississippi River avulsion is continuing. Two aims are pursued by placing the effective discharge approach into the geomorphologic context of the study area. Ten zones are categorized by four distinct geomorphologic classes: meander, no islands; meander, geologic control; meander, islands and divided flow; and straight zones. One, these classes have merit for future research and are shown to be geomorphologically distinct in several ways: natural levee height and channel planform adjustment relationships, sinuosity and width to depth ratios, and bedform depth to height scaling. Two, this approach allows the comparison of the effective discharge to the study area’s geomorphology. Process-form linkages can be made between sediment transporting events and the three levels in a fluvial hierarchy: fluvial bedforms and channels, bars, and levees. Median grain size and channel position of sediment samples from these three levels were plotted on combined LiDAR and bathymetric derived cross- sections from specific geomorphologic zones. This analysis indicates that the fluvial hierarchy coincides with the stages of effective discharge but seems to scale to the elevation of natural levees. This study interjects a geomorphologic approach into the lower Mississippi River discourse and raises a number of interesting questions for further research.