A planarized, capacitor-loaded and optimized loop structure for wireless power transfer
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Simulation, optimization, and implementation of a capacitor-loaded wireless power transfer structure at 6.78 MHz for a target transfer distance of one meter are presented. First, an investigation into the operating principles behind a capacitor-loaded coupled loop structure is carried out via simulation. By adjusting the structural design parameters, it is found that an optimal configuration for this structure is coplanar. A prototype constructed using thin 18 AWG wire for the loops and a variable capacitor for tuning is used to verify simulation. To reduce losses in the wire, thick 9 AWG wire is implemented and measured. Thick wire is necessary for high efficiency yet undesirable for planarization. Since current flows only on the surface of the wire, ‘unwrapping’ that portion yields copper strips that reduce loss by increasing only the width. Thus, by replacing thick wires with copper strips, a planarized structure can be obtained that can reduce ohmic losses without sacrificing its form factor. Next, additional advantages of a capacitor-loaded system, which include reduced electric near-field and the possibility of resonant frequency tuning, are investigated. It is shown by simulation that the capacitor-loaded structure is not strongly affected by nearby dielectric materials since the stored electric energy is significantly lower than the stored magnetic energy in air at resonance. Finally, further optimizations of the structure are considered along with the analytical expressions for maximum efficiency.