Numerical methods for highly oscillatory dynamical systems using multiscale structure
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The main aim of this thesis is to design efficient and novel numerical algorithms for a class of deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems with multiple time scales. Classical numerical methods for such problems need temporal resolution to resolve the finest scale and become, therefore, inefficient when the much longer time intervals are of interest. In order to accelerate computations and improve the long time accuracy of numerical schemes, we take advantage of various multiscale structures established from a separation of time scales. This dissertation is organized into four chapters: an introduction followed by three chapters, each based on one of three different papers. The framework of the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) is considered as a general strategy both for the design and the analysis of multiscale methods. In Chapter 2, we consider a new class of multiscale methods that use a technique related to the construction of a Poincaré map. The main idea is to construct effective paths in the state space whose projection onto the slow subspace shows the correct dynamics. More precisely, we trace the evolution of the invariant manifold M(t), identified by the level sets of slow variables, by introducing a slowly evolving effective path which crosses M(t). The path is locally constructed through interpolation of neighboring points generated from our developed map. This map is qualitatively similar to a Poincaré map, but its construction is based on the procedure which solves two split equations successively backward and forward in time only over a short period. This algorithm does not require an explicit form of any slow variables. In Chapter 3, we present efficient techniques for numerical averaging over the invariant torus defined by ergodic dynamical systems which may not be mixing. These techniques are necessary, for example, in the numerical approximation of the effective slow behavior of highly oscillatory ordinary differential equations in weak near-resonance. In this case, the torus is embedded in a higher dimensional space and is given implicitly as the intersection of level sets of some slow variables, e.g. action variables. In particular, a parametrization of the torus may not be available. Our method constructs an appropriate coordinate system on lifted copies of the torus and uses an iterated convolution with respect to one-dimensional averaging kernels. Non-uniform invariant measures are approximated using a discretization of the Frobenius-Perron operator. These two numerical averaging strategies play a central role in designing multiscale algorithms for dynamical systems, whose fast dynamics is restricted not to a circle, but to the tori. The efficiency of these methods is illustrated by numerical examples. In Chapter 4, we generalize the classical two-scale averaging theory to multiple time scale problems. When more than two time scales are considered, the effective behavior may be described by the new type of slow variables which do not have formally bounded derivatives. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a theory to understand them. Such theory should be applied in the design of multiscale algorithms. In this context, we develop an iterated averaging theory for highly oscillatory dynamical systems involving three separated time scales. The relevant multiscale algorithm is constructed as a family of multilevel solvers which resolve the different time scales and efficiently computes the effective behavior of the slowest time scale.