Nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries
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The demand for electrical energy storage has increased tremendously in recent years, especially in the applications of portable electronic devices, transportation and renewable energy. The performances of lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries depend on their electrode materials. In commercial Li-ion batteries with graphite anodes the intercalation potential of lithium in graphite is close to the reversible Li/Li⁺ half-cell potential. The proximity of the potentials can result in unintended electroplating of metallic instead of intercalation of lithium in the graphite anode and frequently leads to internal shorting and overheating, which constitute unacceptable hazards, especially when the batteries are large, as they are in cars and airplanes. Moreover, graphite cannot be readily used as the anode material of Na-ion batteries, because electroplating of metallic sodium on graphite is kinetically favored over sodium intercalation in graphite. This dissertation examines safer Li-ion and Na-ion battery anode materials.