Development of a multiple-pass Raman spectrometer for flame diagnostics
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A multiple-pass cell is developed and applied to enhance the Raman signal from methane-air flames for temperature measurements. Stable operation of the cell was demonstrated and studied in two alignment modes. In the ring mode, the beams are focused into a ring of ~ 3 mm diameter at the center of the cell, and spectra were recorded at low dispersion (0.26 nm/pixel). Temperature is calculated from the ratio of the intensity of Stokes to anti-Stokes signal from nitrogen. Temperature is also inferred from the shapes of the Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks in the spectrum. The uncertainty in the value of flame temperature in these measurements was ±50 K. The signal gain from 100 passes is a factor of 83. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) improved by a factor of 9.3 in room temperature air with an even higher factor in flames. The improvement in SNR depends on the acquisition time and is best for short acquisition times. In the two point mode, multi passing is achieved simultaneously with high spatial resolution as the laser is focused at two small regions separated by ~ 2 mm at the center of the cell. The probe regions are 300 [mu]m × 200 [mu]m. The vast improvement in the spatial resolution is achieved at the cost of a reduced number of passes and signal gain. The two point mode is operated with 25 passes at each point with a signal gain factor of ~20; the SNR gain depends on the data acquisition time. Spectra were recorded at high dispersion (~0.03 nm/pixel). Temperature is inferred from curve fitting to the high resolution Stokes spectrum of nitrogen in methane-air flames. The curve fit is based on very detailed simulation of Raman spectrum of nitrogen. The final model includes the angular dependence of Raman scattering, electrical and mechanical anharmonicity in the polarizability matrix elements, and the presence of a rare isotope of nitrogen in air. The uncertainty in the value of temperature in the least noisy data is ±9 K. The sources of uncertainty in temperature and their contribution to the total uncertainty are also identified.