Rapid frequency chirps of an Alfvén wave in a toroidal plasma
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Results from models that describe frequency chirps of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode excited by energetic particles are presented here. This structure forms in TAE gap and may or may not chirp into the continuum. Initial work described the particle wave interaction in terms of a generic Hamiltonian for the particle wave interaction, whose spatial dependence was xed in time. In addition, we have developed an improved adiabatic TAE model that takes into account the spatial prole variation of the mode and the nite orbit excursion from the resonant ux surfaces, for a wide range of toroidal mode numbers. We have shown for the generic xed prole model that the results from the adiabatic model agree very well with simulation result except when the adiabatic condition breaks down due to the rapid variations of the wave amplitude and chirping frequency. We have been able to solve the adiabatic problem in the case when the spatial prole is allowed to vary in time, in accord with the structure of the response functions, as a function of frequency. All the models predict that up-chirping holes do not penetrate into the continuum. On the other hand clump structures, which down chirp in frequency may, depending on detailed parameters, penetrate the continuum. The systematic theory is more restrictive than the generic theory, for the conditions that enable clump to penetrate into the continuum. In addition, the systematic theory predicts an important nite drift orbit width eect, which eventually limits and suppresses a down-chirping response in the lower continuum. This interruption of the chirping occurs when the trapped particles make a transition from intersecting both resonant points of the continuum to just one resonant point.