Social capital as determinants of health and well-being : a cross-sectional study of Indonesian women using Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4
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Social capital has been positively associated with adult health and well-being, yet our knowledge about the meaning of social capital for women, especially from developing countries such as Indonesia, is limited. The Indonesian context is particularly suitable for this study since the country is a heterogeneous society in terms of ethnicity, language, and race, and it has rich tradition of social capital. The focus on women is also relevant since the programs and activities of many government and nongovernment organizations target women to improve health and well-being of the family and the community. Because women are the target of these efforts, understanding women's social capital (participation in these organizations) is relevant particularly how participation impacts women's health and well-being. Further, this study investigates whether other dimensions of social capital (social trust and social support) has impact on women's health and well-being. This study utilizes the recent data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS, Wave 4). The findings indicate education has a positive significant effect on health, mental health and well-being outcomes. Higher years of education predict both the odds of being in a good health and having lower mental health problems. Education also predicts higher odds of having adequate standard of living, sufficient food consumption and healthcare, and feeling happy. Among social capital variables, social trust in the general community (feeling safe walking alone at night) has a significant positive effect on good health and lower mental health problems. Participation in Rotating Saving and Credit Association (ROSCA) also has a significant effect on improved women's welfare including having adequate standard of living, enough food consumption, and sufficient healthcare. Living in Java was a determinant factor for having good health, but not the other outcomes. Implications for social work practice and policy development are offered.