Development of tandem mass spectrometric methods for proteome analysis utilizing photodissociation and ion/ion reactions
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The utility of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) for the characterization of peptide anions was systematically evaluated. UVPD outperformed NETD in nearly all metrics; however, both methods provided complementary information to traditional collision induced dissociation (CID) of peptide cations in high throughput analyses. In order to enhance the performance of NETD, activated ion negative electron transfer dissociation (AI-NETD) methods were developed and characterized. The use of low-level infrared photoactivation or collisional activation during the NETD reaction period significantly improved peptide anion sequencing capabilities compared to NETD alone. Tyrosine deprotonation was shown to yield preferential electron detachment upon NETD or UVPD, resulting in N - C[alpha] bond cleavage N-terminal to the tyrosine residue. LC-MS/MS analysis of a tryptic digest of BSA demonstrated that these cleavages were regularly observed under high pH conditions. Transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) was coupled with 193 nm UVPD and CID for the rapid analysis and identification of protein digests. Comparative results are presented for TM-DESI-MS/CID and TM-DESI-MS/UVPD analyses of five proteolyzed model proteins. In some cases TM-DESI/UVPD outperformed TM-DESI-MS/CID due to the production of an extensive array of sequence ions and the ability to detect low m/z product ions. 193 nm UVPD was implemented in an Orbitrap mass spectrometer for characterization of intact proteins. Near-complete fragmentation of proteins up to 29 kDa was achieved. The high-energy activation afforded by UVPD exhibited far less precursor ion charge state dependence than conventional methods, and the viability of 193 nm UVPD for high throughput top-down proteomics analyses was demonstrated for the less 30 kDa protein from a fractionated yeast cell lysate. The use of helium instead of nitrogen as the C-trap and HCD cell bath gas and trapping ions in the HCD cell prior to high resolution mass analysis significantly reduced the signal decay rate for large protein ions. As a result, monoclonal IgG1 antibody was isotopically resolved and mass accurately determined. A new high mass record for which accurate mass and isotopic resolution has been achieved (148,706.3391 Da ± 3.1 ppm) was established.